5 Knee Exercises You Can Do At Home

The best way to maintain healthy and strong knees is to exercise. Strengthening the muscles act to support the knees can help reduce stress on the knee joint. Strong quadriceps and hamstrings help your knees absorb shock. Stretching these muscles are important as well.

Strengthening these muscles can support the knee but can tighten the muscle, which makes them at risk for injury. Implementing a smart exercise regimen and effective stretching can ensure you have healthy knees!

Cartilage responds well to low-impact aerobic activity. A doctor can help you begin building a routine and find which exercises are right for you. Start slowly and listen to your body. Early on you may feel discomfort as your muscles become more accustomed to being challenged. However, if you begin to experience any pain that is not due to basic muscle soreness from exercise discontinue that exercise.

It’s normal to feel stiff and sore after exercise, but if it is difficult to move you may have overdone your exercise. Often a professional physical therapist or exercise physiologist can create a custom exercise program appropriate to you as an individual.

Knee Exercises

These are suggestions and require normal balance and ability. If you have any questions as to your ability to perform these motions pleas consult your physician.

Step Ups

Use a 6-inch high platform and step onto it. Lift your other foot off of the ground and allow it to hang loosely off the platform. Hold for three to five seconds and then slowly lower your hanging foot to the floor. Afterwards, bring your stepping foot down. Repeat on the other side. Make sure your entire foot is on the platform and don’t lock the knee that is stepping onto the platform.

Knee Stabilization

Hold onto the back of a chair and lift one leg. Stabilize your weight on the supporting leg, then tighten the thigh muscle in your lifted left. Move the lifted leg forward, backwards, left and right. Slowly return to the first position and repeat.

Hamstring Curls

Hold onto the back of a chair and balance your weight onto your supporting leg. Lift the other foot and bring the heel towards the buttocks. Hold this position for three to five seconds, and then slowly lower the leg. Repeat this motion with the other leg.

Hamstring Stretch

Sit up with your back straight and both legs extended straight in front of you. Lay your palms on the floor and slide you hands towards your ankles. Hold this position for 30 seconds. Don’t point or flex your feet during this stretch, and keep your back straight. Only go as far as is comfortable of a gentle stretch to the back of the leg.

Quad Stretch

As you hold onto a wall or chair for balance lift one foot up towards your buttocks. Grab your ankle and pull your heel closer to the body. Hold this stretch for 30 seconds. Keep your back straight and knees close together. If you have any knee pain doing this, stop.

If you have any questions about these stretches contact your physician for assistance.

For more information about Knee Exercises visit the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons.

Improve your overall musculoskeletal health with our Bone & Joint Multi! The ingredients in our Well Theory Multivitamin were curated by an orthopedic surgeon to fill gaps in your diet, reduce muscle + joint inflammation, and help you start building a life centered on full-body wellness.


How CBD Can Naturally Relieve Arthritis Pain

How CBD Can Naturally Relieve Arthritis Pain

Dr. Warner Here -

 I am a board-certified orthopedic surgeon practicing in Louisiana. I founded Well Theory to bring you a safe, natural, and holistic option for pain relief and improving your day-to day health without undergoing invasive procedures.

What Is CBD

& is it safe?

Cannabinoids are naturally occurring plant-based substances that can modify human health and wellness.

There are hundreds of phytochemicals present within the plant Cannabis sativa. Most of the cannabinoids, especially CBD, are not psychoactive. That is, they will not get one ‘high.’ CBD will however, improve overall health and can help a great deal with the symptoms associated with arthritis.


What Is Arthritis?

Arthritis is damage to the cartilage coating of the surfaces of joints. This is an inflammatory condition and is often painful. Stiffness and swelling also occur with arthritis. The symptoms of pain, stiffness, swelling and associated fatigue and weakness all respond well to the CBD phytochemical.

How CBD Works

and how it can reduce arthritis pain + inflammation

CBD has been shown in various clinical trials to have few if any, harmful side effects – especially when compared to pharmaceuticals developed to address conditions CBD was being tested for.

CBD works in humans by modulating the human body’s innate endocannabinoid system. Throughout the human body there exist endocannabinoid receptors in enormous amounts. These receptor types (G-protein coupled) are in fact the most numerous of receptor types. The endocannabinoid system has receptors on many tissue types throughout the body that exert their effects and influence things like the inflammatory response, hunger, mood, and more. CBD is particularly active on immune system cells.

The endocannabinoid system is an endogenous (native to the human body)
system lipid signalling pathway.

The endocannabinoid system is composed of the ligands (substances that bind to receptors), the receptors and the associated enzymes that make and destroy the ligands. This system is involved in the function of the following separate systems of the body: peripheral nervous, autonomic nervous, endocrine, central nervous and immune systems.

There is therapeutic potential for substances that affect this human system. In numerous studies, CBD has been shown to:

  • Eases Pain
  • Stimulates Bone Growth
  • Suppresses Muscle Spasms
  • Reduces Risk of Nerve Damage
  • Reduces The Risk of Artery Obstructions
  • Slows Inflammation
  • Suppresses Muscle Convulsions
  • Reduces Blood Sugar Levels
  • Eases Nausea
  • Decreases Pressure In the Blood Vessels

Because of their ability to interact with the endocannabinoid system, CBD and many other cannabinoids have therapeutic potential for symptoms related to conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, fibromyalgia, osteoarthritis, back pain, neck pain, inflammation, CNS disorders, obesity, chronic pain and neuropathic pain.

How CBD Can Relieve Arthritis Symptoms

by reducing pain & inflammation

CBD is a phytochemical that can modify the human endocannabinoid system, usually through the CB2 receptor, which affects things such as the sensation of pain, inflammation, and more.

CBD can change the symptoms of arthritis because it can change the cytokine (proteins that are important in cell signaling) release and immune cell migration associated with inflammation. CBD has anti-inflammatory effects as it reduces the amount of inflammatory cytokines released in response to injury or a condition affecting the joints, such as arthritis.

Additionally, CBD can suppress the neurotransmitter release at the neural synapse and thus change the amount of pain felt by the brain – thereby both reducing pain and inflammation caused by arthritic joints.

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CBD And The Medical Community

We believe that there is ongoing participation of the endocannabinoid system in many physiologic processes, such as the inflammation and pain associated with arthritis. Therefore, by maintaining the proper balance and function of the endocannabinoid system, one can modify these symptoms, improve quality of life, and reduce the consequences of aging. We believe that CBD has this power and is an excellent plant-based adjunct to a thoughtful wellness regimen.

“My goal is to help people age better, age fitter, and enjoy their old age. We’re all going to get old. You can’t stop that

Meredith Warner, MD

Choose Well Theory

for your peace of mind

Do you suffer from arthritic pain and are tired of taking heavy pharmaceuticals? Have you exhausted every treatment with no relief in sight? Try Well Theory, Dr. Warner’s line of holistic pain-fighting products, and start curating full-body wellness today.

Dr. Meredith Warner

Orthopedic Surgeon

About the author

Dr. Meredith Warner is the creator of Well Theory and The Healing Sole. She is a board-certified Orthopedic Surgeon and Air Force Veteran. She is on a mission to disrupt traditional medicine practices and promote betterment physically, spiritually and mentally to many more people. She advocates for wellness and functional health over big pharma so more people can age vibrantly with more function and less pain.

At Well Theory, Our surgeon-designed products are FDA Registered and formulated to help people:

  • Manage the symptoms of musculoskeletal pain
  • Recover vibrantly from orthopedic related surgeries
  • Fill the gaps in our daily diets
  • Manage pain associated with inflammation

Surgeon Formulated
For Your Peace of Mind

Natural Ingredients + Cutting-Edge Medical Breakthroughs.

  • 100% NATURAL

Why is CBD Controversial & Why Your Body Needs It

Why is CBD Controversial & Why Your Body Needs It

Dr. Warner Here -

I recently read an article in the Journal of the American Medical Association by Dr. Rita Rubin MA regarding CBD and the controversy surrounding its use.

This article discussed the current debates surrounding this very powerful and safe herb.

Read my thoughts from a medical doctor’s perspective as I summarize the research.

CBD's Journey To Legalization

1940 - today

Copyright PBS

Because CBD was lumped in with THC (marijuana) when the drug laws of the 1970s took place, it has remained out of reach of most providers and patients. Only now can people take this herb and benefit from it; although for thousands of years its benefits for the body and overall wellness have been known.

In fact, the article I read mentions that CBD had surpassed turmeric in 2018 as the most sold supplement in the USA.

The only real two controversies with CBD are the following:

  1. At this time, the public sometimes buys products that are not actually CBD derived from industrial hemp plants. That is, there are counterfeits on the market or mislabeled products.
  2. And secondly, some companies and individuals make medical claims about CBD that the FDA frowns upon.

Why You Should Incorporate CBD

into your wellness routine

As a major phytocannabinoid, CBD is considered to have a wide scope of potential medical application. Coupled with it’s lack of side effects, particularly the lack of psychoactivity and non interference with psychomotor learning and psychological factors, CBD has the potential to:

  • Eases Pain
  • Stimulates Bone Growth
  • Suppresses Muscle Spasms
  • Reduces Risk of Nerve Damage
  • Reduces The Risk of Artery Obstructions
  • Slows Inflammation
  • Suppresses Muscle Convulsions
  • Reduces Blood Sugar Levels
  • Eases Nausea
  • Decreases Pressure In the Blood Vessels

Does CBD Have Any Side Effects

and what does the FDA say?

CBD has been shown in various clinical trials to have few if any, harmful side effects – especially when compared to pharmaceuticals developed to address conditions CBD was being tested for.

The only adverse event that can be found anywhere is in the Epidiolex trials that GW Pharma did in order to gain FDA approval for their highly concentrated single substance isolate.

In this study, there were reports of elevated liver enzymes, diarrhea, somnolence, and decreased appetite.

In this trial, participants took up to 20mg/kg/day. This means if you weigh 70 Kg (154 lbs) you would take 1400mg of CBD each day!

Dr. Meredith Warner

This is an enormous amount of CBD to take in one sitting – especially in isolate form, which means that it was pure CBD, undiluted by other terpenes and cannabinoid extractions found in the industrial hemp plant. In my opinion, the side-effects of this particular trial cannot be attached to full or broad-spectrum hemp oils that happen to have CBD.

What Risks Are Associated

with CBD?

It is also worth keeping in mind that anti-inflammatory medications and Tylenol also cause elevations in liver enzymes – and these are over-the-counter medications, easily accessible to the public.

What is true for sure is that CBD is processed by certain enzymes in the liver. If you are taking other medications processed by the same enzymes, you should take care and seek the advice of your physician before adding CBD into the mix.

That being said, it takes a very large dose for the liver to be overwhelmed. The participants with the most elevation of liver enzymes were typically on other liver-metabolized seizure medications.

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Take Precautions When Choosing

your CBD products

At this time, as with all supplements and over-the-counter pharmaceuticals, it is up to the consumer to determine dosage amount, risk, and other factors related to consumption. Recent studies have shown that many vitamins and supplements are not actually what they are labeled to be – and many CBD products are no exception.

A California testing company recently tested products on the market and found that only 3 of 20 were what they were supposed to be. Therefore, it is important that the product be made in an FDA-registered factory and be tested at an FDA-certified testing facility. The regulatory environment around CBD/hemp is very robust and it is almost impossible to produce THC or put out a false product when the rules are followed. Usually, CBD bought at gas stations and inexpensive CBD is not what it is supposed to be. Making quality CBD and testing it is very cost-prohibitive.

“My goal is to help people age better, age fitter, and enjoy their old age. We’re all going to get old. You can’t stop that

Meredith Warner, MD

As with all supplements, the FDA takes action against false claims. Most of the complaints around CBD stem from companies stating that their products can cure cancer, Alzheimer’s, dementia, MS, and other maladies.

At this time there are thousands of articles and research studies showing the very strong anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, pro-immunotherapeutic and other beneficial aspects of this herb; however, making a claim about a disease is not allowed unless one has finished the $50 – $100 million FDA process to do so.

It is up to the companies to change the labeling and marketing to make sure that this natural medicine remains available to the public. 

Current Status of CBD

studies and legalizations

The NIH has recently awarded $3 million in grants to study the effects of CBD. However, the real money for studies will need to come from the public and/or corporations.

Right now, the FDA is exerting control of this natural medicine by way of the Food Drug and Cosmetic Act. Because Epidiolex captured an FDA-approval for its isolate of CBD, the FDA feels that CBD cannot also be a supplement.

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In other words, if a company secures FDA approval for a natural product, then it is no longer considered natural by the FDA. The FDA does not want any company mixing CBD with food (although this is rampant in California and other states) or stating it is a ‘dietary supplement’.

It is legal to produce CBD for consumption for persons as a support for inflammation, oxidation and other symptoms – which is what I offer on our Well Theory site

Choose Well Theory

for your peace of mind

When purchasing and using CBD products, you should keep a couple of things in mind: you should not take large doses, and you should buy it from a reputable source that has proof of testing from a 3rd party lab. While CBD is not going to cure any disease; it will support the body’s endocannabinoid system and improve a lot of uncomfortable symptoms.

Each of our Well Theory products is FDA-registered and has been tested in a 3rd party lab for your peace of mind. For steady + natural results, choose Well Theory and start living well today.

Dr. Meredith Warner

Orthopedic Surgeon

About the author

Dr. Meredith Warner is the creator of Well Theory and The Healing Sole. She is a board-certified Orthopedic Surgeon and Air Force Veteran. She is on a mission to disrupt traditional medicine practices and promote betterment physically, spiritually and mentally to many more people. She advocates for wellness and functional health over big pharma so more people can age vibrantly with more function and less pain.

At Well Theory, Our surgeon-designed products are FDA Registered and formulated to help people:

  • Manage the symptoms of musculoskeletal pain
  • Recover vibrantly from orthopedic related surgeries
  • Fill the gaps in our daily diets
  • Manage pain associated with inflammation

Surgeon Formulated
For Your Peace of Mind

Natural Ingredients + Cutting-Edge Medical Breakthroughs.

  • 100% NATURAL

How Plantar Fasciitis Slows You Down

Plantar fasciitis affects over 2 million people a year and is thought to be the most common cause of pain in the inferior heel. If left untreated plantar fasciitis can become a disabling long-term condition. Plantar fasciitis affects a patient’s level of activity and affect mobility.

The natural history of plantar fasciitis can mean pain lasts up to two years without proper treatment. If treatment is implemented correctly and in a timely manner the patient can return to their regular activities quickly.


The plantar fascia is a band of fascia that runs directly beneath the skin and subcutaneous fat on the bottom of the foot. The plantar fascia connects the heel to the front of the foot and supports the arch. Passively, the plantar fascia helps bear the weight of the body and some studies estimate it supports as much as 14 percent of the total load of the foot.

The plantar fascia is also important during gait because it elongates as you move throughout the motion. As the plantar fascia elongates or stretches it provides increasing support to the arch and augments foot movement/function.


Since the plantar fascia functions as one of the primary support structures in the foot is prone to being overstressed. Too much pressure or overexertion can damage or tear the tissue. People who are overweight or constantly on their feet are specifically susceptible to developing plantar fasciitis. Individuals with flat feet or high arches are also more likely to develop the condition.

People who participate in running or walking are capable of developing plantar fasciitis because of the stress placed on the feet during these activities. Many people who have heel spurs develop plantar fasciitis however heel spurs are not the cause of plantar fasciitis. Nonetheless, the size of one’s heel spur corresponds to the intensity of pain.



If you feel pain in the heel and/or arch as soon as you step out of bed in the morning you may have plantar fasciitis. Patients who suffer from plantar fasciitis often report pain after long periods of being inactive; for instance, heel pain after a long drive or after working at a desk. Pain can also begin after periods of heavy activity; this is likely due to the stressors placed on the structure.



Simple home-based treatments can be effective in about 10 months for over 90 percent of patients struggling with plantar fasciitis. Reducing or stopping activities that make the pain worst can quickly reduce pain in most patients. However, over time inactivity is actually worse for the foot. Icing the heel three to four times a day can also be effective. Plantar fasciitis can be worsened if the muscles in the leg and foot are tight. Stretching and exercises can reduce pain and improve mobility. Physician directed treatment could further shorten healing time to one to three months.

Anti-inflammatory medication can reduce pain and inflammation as well. Supportive shoes and orthotics can benefit the plantar fascia as well and provide essential support. Night splints are sometimes recommended to wear as you sleep to stretch the plantar fascia as you sleep. Physical therapy is an excellent treatment for this condition. Occasionally injections are required. PRP therapy is also known to work for plantar fasciitis as well.

Surgical treatment is only recommended after 12 months of non-surgical treatment if the pain is still present. Plantar fascia release is a surgery some doctors recommend if you still have normal range of motion but continued heel pain. During this procedure the ligament is partially cut to relieve stress and tension in the plantar fascia.

Gastrocnemius recession is a surgery that lengthens the calf muscles to decrease stress on the plantar fascia. Tight calf muscles increase tension in the plantar fascia and gastrocnemius recession aims to reduce the amount of stress caused by plantar fasciitis. It is the goal at Warner Orthopedics to avoid surgery for plantar fasciitis if at all possible.


For more information about Plantar Fasciitis visit the American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons.

Choosing A Multi-Vitamin You Can Trust – A Surgeon’s Guide

Choosing A Multi-Vitamin You Can Trust - A Surgeon's Guide

Why You need a daily multivitamin

designed for bones, joints, & immune function

Your bones are constantly being remade – old bone is broken down, and new bone is made. As you age, you reach peak bone mass around age 30. Your body will still create new bone, but at a slower rate than it did when you were younger. To combat this, you should consume more calcium-dense foods and supplement if necessary.

“For adults ages 19 to 50 and men ages 51 to 70, the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) is 1,000 milligrams (mg) of calcium a day. The recommendation increases to 1,200 mg a day for women after age 50 and for men after age 70 as well as those healing from surgery.”

Bone Health: Tips To Keep Your Bones Healthy (Mayo Clinic)

Most people are not getting the nutrition they need on a daily basis from their diet which hinders their ability to recover from orthopedic issues or surgical interventions – especially as they age.

There are many multivitamins on the market, but orthopedic surgeon Dr. Meredith Warner wasn’t able to find one formulation that provided all the essential vitamins and minerals she wanted for her patients in one single bottle and with the appropriate dosing needed – especially those who are considering surgery and will need help recovering quickly post-op.

As we age, hormonal changes alter how our bodies process vitamins and minerals from our food, slowing things like calcium absorption, which is an essential part of maintaining bone health. As it becomes more difficult to take in the right amount of vitamins, it becomes more necessary to supplement where needed to maintain your standard of wellness.

The time to start a supplement regimen is now

but where do you start?

Even a decrease in mobility can affect your vitamin intake. Vitamin D, which you can receive from sunlight, plays an important role in calcium absorption. If you go outside less often due to things like joint inflammation, you will receive less Vitamin D – which creates a vicious cycle.

With less exposure to Vitamin D, you will have more difficulty absorbing the right amount of calcium, which will directly affect your musculoskeletal health – further limiting your mobility as you age

Aging is a natural process - but instead of addressing negative symptoms as they appear, wouldn’t you rather maintain your standard of health as you get older? If you start taking care of your body now, it will age with grace and you will lose less function over time.

And often as we age, our appetites decrease. The best way to efficiently absorb nutrients is naturally, through our diets – but with less food intake, you receive fewer vitamins and minerals. This loss of appetite combined with slower bone replacement – which happens naturally as you age – make supplements that specifically support bone health essential for avoiding fractures and maintaining your quality of life.

How to choose the right multivitamin

and what you need to look for

When you walk into the pharmacy section of any grocery store, you are presented with a multitude of choices – countless brands offering different multivitamins, and an even greater number of individual vitamins, minerals, and supplements. 

Choosing the right multivitamin or supplement regimen isn’t as easy as picking up a bottle or two off the shelf – blending essential nutrients into a single dose is a complicated process.

Absorption effectiveness of certain vitamins depends heavily on what other vitamins you pair with them, and in what dosage size.

For example, taking Vitamin C alongside an Iron supplement can help your body process the iron more efficiently.

Other vitamins, when taken at the same time, either “compete” for absorption or could even cancel each other out.

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To further complicate matters, the FDA struggles to regulate supplements.  Many multivitamins that make claims about improving things like health, sleep, and overall wellness may be making inaccurate claims.

Needless to say, it can be difficult and time-consuming to research the accuracy of those health claims yourself. This creates a problem for consumers who are uncertain of how to vet their supplement intake. Choosing the right multivitamin for your specific needs is difficult enough as it is, but made more complicated with these factors.

You should seek the advice of a physician before beginning a supplement regimen – chances are, they will be able to direct you to a blend suitable for your particular needs. You also want to look for multivitamins that have been tested in a 3rd party lab and are registered with The FDA to assure the purity and safety of their ingredients.

This way, you will know that the ingredients listed on the bottle are actually in the bottle – and in the indicated amounts. This is especially useful information to have if you are taking other medications and want to make sure your new multivitamin won’t interact negatively with your prescription.

Well Theory: a Better Way to Wellness

a surgeon developed multi that’s different

Dr. Meredith Warner is a board-certified orthopedic surgeon with a thriving private practice in Louisiana, USA. Her practice allows her the freedom to treat patients in the best way possible – on an individual basis. It has always been her goal to seek non-operative treatment and functional recovery over surgical or heavy pharmaceutical means of healing. 

This is why Dr. Warner developed her Bone & Joint Multivitamin. This proprietary blend contains the essential vitamins and minerals she recommends for her patients’ pre- and post-op regimens. She handpicked each ingredient in this Multi to boost musculoskeletal health, help reduce joint + muscle inflammation, and promote full-body wellness.

“My goal is to help people age better, age fitter, and enjoy their old age. We’re all going to get old. You can’t stop that

Meredith Warner, MD

Each ingredient in our multi is beneficial and necessary on their own – but together, they make a fantastic impact on your overall health and Bones and joints as they are carefully paired for maximum, and efficient, absorption – including the appropriate dosing of each. 

Instead of going to the store and potentially spending hundreds on large quantities of different vitamins and minerals, you now have a surgeon-curated option available in a single, convenient bottle

Our formulation supports bone, ligament, tendon, and skin health along with a foundation for wound healing. 
Additionally, it has the added benefit of Full Spectrum Hemp cannabidiol to support a healthy response to inflammation via your endocannabinoid system. 

Dr. Warner wanted the perfect multivitamin that would support tissue healing, wound healing, skin, which is integral to wound healing, and then bone and muscle growth – so she could confidently recommend it to her patients and the world. 

What Is IN the multivitamin?

carefully selected ingredients made for you

Each ingredient in our multi is the blend of essential vitamins + minerals Dr. Warner handpicks for her patients – especially those who are considering surgery. 

Full Spectrum Hemp Powder

Full Spectrum Hemp Powder is hemp with beneficial terpenes and cannabinoids. It’s included for its ability to support a healthy response to inflammation and provide you with antioxidants needed to support your overall health.

Vitamin C

Vitamin C boosts the function of the immune system to protect against illness and improves the body’s ability to repair damaged tissue - vital for wound healing & mandatory for collagen formation.

Calcium Citrate

Calcium Citrate is useful in balancing blood calcium levels to promote stronger, healthier bones and prevent the development of conditions such as osteoporosis.

Vitamin D3

Vitamin D3 aids in the body’s ability to absorb calcium to promote bone health and the prevention of bone disorders. It's important to almost every human system.

Magnesium Oxide

Magnesium Oxide regulates magnesium levels to reduce muscle cramps and bone pain. It is also effective for lowering blood pressure, relieving anxiety and depression, and improving sleep quality. This is essential for nerve & muscle function.

Zinc Gluconate

Zinc Gluconate is a mineral that helps to balance zinc levels within the body as well as to promote the healthy growth and development of body tissues. It plays a large role in wound healing & connective tissue development.

Most multivitamins are filled with vitamins you don’t need, in amounts that are unnecessary, or even in ratios that cancel each other out. At Well Theory, we believe that less is more. Dr. Warner made sure to include only the essential nutrients that she recommends for her orthopedic patients, to provide targeted benefits for your musculoskeletal health.

This unique blend is ideal for surgical patients, but a great option for optimizing your overall health. Surgical candidates are often advised to make lifestyle changes so they’re at peak health before and after their procedures – and this multi is designed to do just that.

Why Choose well theory?

natural ingredients. powerful results.

At Well Theory, we are dedicated to providing you with a way to improve your overall health and reduce your pain – safely and naturally.  We believe in helping you build a better lifestyle, holistically and with the guidance of an orthopedic surgeon’s expertise.

In her years of clinical practice, Dr. Warner has often found that in many cases, natural alternatives to heavy pharmaceuticals and invasive procedures can be just as successful or more successful. 

As an orthopedic surgeon, she has to consider the context of the condition she’s treating – how it affects other parts of the musculoskeletal system, and how the treatment will change her patient’s lifestyle. This is why she prefers gentle therapies whenever they can be utilized, because while in many cases they are as effective as mainstream medicine, their impact on the body tends to be less jarring.

With this in mind, Dr. Warner founded Well Theory – and developed our revolutionary new Bone and Joint Multivitamin.

what you can expect from our multi:

one convenient multi for bone + joints

You may begin to feel the health-boosting effects immediately, but consider benefits – like increased energy and improved mood – added bonuses while you’re improving your overall health. Most people begin to feel a difference towards the end of the first month of regular dosage, but the things that are happening inside your body are what counts. 

Nutrients and vitamins that you weren’t receiving from your body are quickly absorbed due to the carefully curated combinations of ingredients. Your bones, joints, and connective tissues are supported and strengthened as well. And our hemp-sourced cannabidiol serves to help reduce overall inflammation, decreasing stress and improving your body’s function.

Anti-inflammatory support + wound recovery support
Joint function and muscle support, calcium assists in bone health
Helps your body with vibrancy in aging, overall health + wellness, vitality

Dr. Warner designed her Bone & Joint Multi to:

  • Help fill the nutritional gaps in your diet 
  • Support a healthy response to inflammation 
  • Promote post-surgical recovery 
  • Pre-surgical optimization 
  • Promote overall musculoskeletal health for bone, joints, tendons, muscles, and ligaments

Choose the multivitamin designed for surgical recovery – filled with ingredients Dr. Warner chooses for her patients every day.

Are you ready to start taking steps towards a more natural + intentional wellness regimen? Act now, curate your new healthy lifestyle, and get steady results. 

Surgeon Formulated
For Your Peace of Mind

Natural Ingredients + Cutting-Edge Medical Breakthroughs.

  • 100% NATURAL

The Stages of Ankle Arthritis

Ankle arthritis can be painful, but the key is to understand what stage it is in so you can treat it quickly.

The ankle is a critical joint in our bodies. Not to say that other joints are less critical, but the ankle is a meeting point for cartilage, connective tissues, and tendons. The ankle is the lowest main meeting point of the muscles, tendons, and ligaments used for walking, running and jumping. It is essential for force and speed. The downside to its importance is that all the force of these muscles and tendons around the ankle area makes the cartilage prone to damage, also known as arthritis. Cartilage coats the surface of a joint to allow motion when damaged, this is why movement becomes painful and less smooth.

Arthritis is a degenerative disease so, the longer you wait, the worse it gets. Medical professionals can determine your stage of arthritis and treat it, but there are some steps you can take to help alleviate and articulate the problem before it becomes too much to handle.

The early stage of ankle arthritis.

In healthy ankles, cartilage covers the joints to protect them from friction. In ankles that are developing arthritis, this cartilage begins to wear down, therefore enabling the formation of pitting and irregularities of the surface. This is considered the early stages of ankle arthritis and is characterized by an uncomfortable or stiffening sensation in the ankle after a long day of walking or several hours of sitting.

The early stage can be a problematic one, as this pain is hard to distinguish from regular discomfort. To remedy this stage of ankle arthritis, take some anti-inflammatory NSAIDs, such as ibuprofen or naproxen – if you aren’t allergic. Pair with this supportive footwear, low-impact activity, and a healthy, active lifestyle. Low impact aerobic activity has been shown to be best for cartilage health. Note that no activity is not good for cartilage.

Mid-Stage Ankle Arthritis

Later, bone spurs develop in response to abnormal cartilage. Thus, this is the stage where you will begin to realize some discomfort and pain that may not be normal. Symptoms will become more noticeable, as you’ll experience varying levels of pain throughout the day that comes in waves, as well as occasional swelling. Occasional rest and off-loading of the ankle may become necessary at this point. Doing so can help in the short term. However, for long-term solutions, it is better to stay somewhat active to keep your muscles strong so that they can support the ankle joint.

One remedy to this stage of arthritis, continue to take NSAIDs, do low-impact exercise, and meet with an orthopedic surgeon to determine the next steps. At this stage, surgery may be considered to remove spurs, clean up joins or stabilize or realign the ankle. Bracing and graded socks are often helpful. Rocker bottom shoes also and topical pain methods may also help with this.

End-Stage Ankle Arthritis

The late stages of ankle arthritis are when the cartilage around the joint is almost entirely gone, leaving very little space between the bones, inhibiting motion. This may be true for all or just a portion of the joint. Spurs can be quite large as well. At this stage, the ankle will be incredibly stiff and sometimes completely immobile.

Simple activities like ascending/descending stairs and squatting can become impossible. In the later stages, the lubricating fluid in your joints is absent, so the friction on your bones is increased. Moving at this stage may be painful and could also be damaging to your bones. However, many people can remain high-functioning and relatively pain-free, despite this arthritis. To treat this stage of arthritis, previous remedies (such as NSAIDs and light activity) may not be enough. If you’re at this stage and the pain is affecting your daily life, contact an orthopedic surgeon immediately, as surgery could likely be needed.

Your surgeon could also recommend a series of nonoperative remedies as well. These could range from physical therapy to acupuncture, to special shoes or CAM (complementary alternative medicine).

Arthritis is a painful disease that can get worse the longer you ignore it. Identifying that the pain or discomfort is in fact arthritis is an important step, and seeking help before symptoms worse is crucial. Sometimes, our joints are sore, stiff, and hurt a little, especially at older ages.

What to do if You’re Still Dealing with Pain after Bunion Surgery?

Unfortunately, bunion surgeries are not always successful. In the scientific literature on this subject, there are different types and severities of bunions; there are about 130 described ways to operate on a bunion. Usually, when there are this many options, it means that the best option has not been discovered. Historically, bunion surgeries have been painful and often fail.

A successful result from bunion surgery should mean that the patient is better and they have also increased their function. In addition, the patient should be able to wear the shoes they want to wear, such as high heels. A good bunion surgery will also allow the patient to walk relatively soon after the procedure and return to work quickly as well.

Revision Surgery

If you have had a surgery for a bunion and find that you still have pain, or that it has moved, you may benefit from what is called ‘revision’ surgery. Revision surgery simply means that the previous surgery is changed or revised.

The goal of a revision bunion surgery is to achieve the successful result described above. This type of surgery is complicated and requires a significant amount of training and experience to do well.

A patient’s radiographs and any other imaging must be analyzed and measured, and the foot anatomy and relationships between the various parts must be carefully examined. The foot doctor or surgeon should understand fully the patient’s activity levels and work description before planning the appropriate surgery.

Post-Surgery Transfer Metatarsalgia

Many patients have pain under the second and third toes at the ball of the foot after a bunion surgery. This pain is usually with activity and can be burning, aching or throbbing. Sometimes there is swelling there as well.

This type of pain is called ‘transfer metatarsalgia’; this basically means that the pain was simply moved from the bunion to the area under the ball of the foot; pain remains, even after surgery.

Many times this pain happens after bunion surgery because the bone for the great toe was shortened a little too much during the correction of the bunion. The shape of the foot is changed, and the patient’s weight moves over to the next toes during walking. The bones for the second and third toes were not designed for bearing so much of the body’s weight and they react with pain due to stretching out and compression of the tissues around these bones.

For this problem, a revision bunion surgery would create the normal balance in the foot again through a complex process of lengthening the appropriate bones.


Surgery should not be considered lightly.

However, if a patient has undergone surgery and feels that they still have too much pain, a consultation is in order to determine if revision surgery is necessary. There are surgical and non-surgical options available that can help to alleviate bunion pain, even if you have already had surgery.

What’s the Best Treatment for Plantar Fasciitis?

A recent study from McGill University in Canada looked at treatments for plantar fasciitis. The authors compared three groups of patients with pain from plantar fasciitis; each group had a different treatment.

The Study

  • One group underwent extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ECST) with orthotics and a home exercise program 
  • One group had a low-level laser (LLLT) with orthotics and a home exercise program 
  • The last group received only orthotics and a home exercise program 

Treatment Plans

  • The ECST group had to undergo shockwave treatment weekly for three weeks  
  • The LLLT group had to have treatment three times a week for ten sessions 
  • The last group did not have to go to a clinic for treatment 

The Results

The insoles that each group wore were non-custom and shock-absorbing. The exercises were heel cord (calf) stretching and plantar fascia stretching.

The participants were monitored in the three months following their treatments.

All three groups had a reduction in pain.

However, the LLLT group did the best in this study. LLLT and ECST have been recommended to increase cell activation and to stimulate healing. In this particular study, there was no additive effect of going to the clinic for ECST as opposed to simply wearing the orthotics and doing the exercises. However, the LLLT group did have an additive effect. That is, the LLLT therapy group had the most reduction in pain in this study.

The issues with both ECST and LLLT are that neither are covered by insurance and require multiple visits. Also, shock wave therapy is known to be painful. It is up to you to decide if such treatments are worth it for a modest improvement in pain control over conventional therapy, exercise, and insoles.

Cinar EE, Saxena S, Uygur F. Combination therapy versus exercise and orthotic support in the management of pain in plantar fasciitis: A randomized controlled trial. FAI. 2018; 39(4): 406-414

What is Ankle Arthritis?

The manifestation of ankle arthritis causes as much psychological and physical damage to the body as does the arthritis of the knee, hip, and back. In addition, we now know that ankle arthritis also causes as many functional limitations as does arthritis of the knee and hip.

However, ankle arthritis is only recently being recognized nationally as an actual pain source and entity worthy of treatment. Ankle arthritis has been considered secondary to hip and knee arthritis for a while.

Dr. Warner has been treating ankle arthritis for over a decade and is up to date on all cutting-edge treatments.

An unstable ankle due to ligament damage (sprains) that heal improperly can cause enough shear force to an ankle to produce arthritis. Also, a previous break/fracture will have abnormal motion if it is not repaired anatomically and that leads to abnormal forces on the cartilage; thus arthritis develops. It is very important that ankle fractures be corrected with exquisite attention to detail and anatomy.

The ankle is a small and perfectly shaped joint; it was not designed with the same amount of give and play that the knee and hip have. Therefore, fractures of the ankle have many more long-term consequences with regard to arthritic change.

Fractures that cause significant cartilage damage lead to ankle arthritis.

More often, fractures that heal poorly or heal in a poor position lead to arthritis. This is because even a 1mm shift in the ankle joint surface can dramatically increase the contact pressures inside the joint and cause chondral damage (arthritis). Again, this is not true for the hip and knee.

A mal-united fracture can be corrected to either prevent or treat arthritis. If you have an old fracture that has healed in a bad position, there are a number of treatment options available to correct that problem.


Causes of Ankle Arthritis

About 1% of the adult population has ankle arthritis. Of those, 80% are post-traumatic in nature. The ankle is different than most joints in that the arthritis is typically due to trauma. Most other joints, such as the hip, knee, and back have degeneration as the primary source of arthritis. The ankle breaks down and becomes arthritic after either a fracture (broken ankle) or due to sprains and ligament damage. For post-traumatic arthritis to occur, the actual bony plate that the cartilage sits upon must break as well as the cartilage itself.

Most cases of late ankle arthritis also have an alignment problem; that is, the ankle is in a varus or valgus position (tipped inward or outward). The mal-positioning of an ankle increases abnormal forces and also instability at times; this is associated with arthritis and pain. Any treatment plan should include a correction to normal alignment. If your treatment plan for ankle arthritis does not, ask your doctor if he or she has considered that.


Diagnosis Process

Pain is often associated with arthritis. However, some people with arthritis have no pain at all; it is not predictable who will have pain or who won’t. Many times other factors play into the perceived pain beyond the actual arthritis that is present. Ankle arthritis is no exception to the association of arthritis and pain; typically ankle arthritis hurts during activity (work, walking, running, etc.). Occasionally pain occurs with changes in the weather or after activity. Sometimes pain is spontaneous. There is a genetic predisposition to chronic pain related to arthritis. Cartilage itself has no nerve endings and arthritis in and of itself cannot be painful.

The pain that is associated with arthritis is typically due to associated damage to the bone that the cartilage sits upon, the synovial tissue or joint capsule and the ligaments around the ankle. In addition, the muscles of the leg can hurt, as can the nerves that surround the joint. The inflammatory fluids that are released due to the inflammation can sensitize nerves; this may contribute to pain as well. It is important that the actual source of pain be recognized prior to beginning or selecting any treatment method.

Just because there is the presence of arthritis on an X-ray and the pain is at that joint does not necessarily mean that there may not be another source of pain. Diagnosis of actual pain source should be mandatory prior to any surgical intervention.

Upper Back Pain: Your “Disc” Pain May Actually Not Need Surgery

Many people with chronic upper back pain eventually undergo unnecessary surgeries and un-indicated disability. This is because many patients’ chronic upper back pain is misdiagnosed as having a skeletal cause, when instead the patient is suffering from unrecognized myofascial trigger point syndrome (MPS). Although MPS is a leading cause of chronic pain and disability in this country, most providers who deal with pain are not taught about MPS. In part, this is because muscles generally receive little attention in modern medical schools as a source of pain.

A patient with MPS will present with non-specific, poorly localized, aching, regional pain in tissue that includes muscles and joints.

Myofascial pain is also associated with spot tenderness, pain that is referred in a characteristic pattern for that tender point (also called a “trigger point”), a local twitch response and a painful limitation of range of motion of the associated joint.

Muscular imbalances and postural deficiencies often cause these painful nodules; the nodules in turn, cause further pain and dysfunction. Overload can do this, as can poor posture. Trigger points may also be brought about by stress and emotional illnesses or constitutional problems. Trigger points may be identified by the electrical signals they produce, but ultrasound may also be used to see these.

Trigger points are characterized as either latent or active. Latent trigger points cause muscular dysfunction but do not actually hurt. Active trigger points hurt, and are painful for nearly everyone at some point in life. In the chronic pain population, trigger points are present 85-95% of the time.

Pain from active trigger points most often presents in those aged 31-50. At this point, most people are in the mature years of maximum activity. Later in life, latent trigger points and stiffness are more common.

Treating MPS is much more conservative, safe and effective than the treatment of the mistakenly diagnosed syndromes and conditions it mimics.

Treatment includes injections at the trigger points, massage, stretching, management of stress and tension and often a home self-treatment program. Patient education along with a home-treatment program is an excellent form of treatment also.

It‘s important to recognize a trigger point early on when a patient presents with upper back pain. If acute MPS is neglected or ignored, it may become chronic and then is complicated, more painful and time-consuming and expensive to treat reliably.