How Oxidative Stress Harms Nervous System Health

How Oxidative Stress Harms Nervous System Health

What Is Neurodegeneration?

Neurodegeneration is characterized by the progressive loss of selective neural subtypes in the CNS (central nervous system).

Accumulating evidence shows this is mediated by mitochondrial damage.

The common mechanism for lifestyle and non-communicable chronic diseases (NCDs) is mitochondrial dysfunction.

The Role Mitochondria Play In Nervous System Health

Mitochondria are responsible for energy production in cells; they produce the fuel used by all other cellular processes.

Think of mitochondria as a central processing unit; it takes external nutrient input and then produces energy output. Energy is in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate) and they also produce important lipid species and provide metabolic substrates for post-translational modifications for cell signaling by DNA.

Part of the process of the electron transport chain (ETC) which is how mitochondria make energy is a byproduct called ROS (reactive oxygen species). These unpaired electrons or free radicals can damage the mitochondria, mitochondrial DNA and other cellular processes. 

The mitochondria have a system to check the ROS from damaging cells, but it is often overwhelmed due to chronic inflammation and excessive oxidative stress.

The mitochondria create energy from nutrients in the inner mitochondrial membrane. Here in the oxidative phosphorylation chain superoxide is made. 

This is a common ROS in the cell formed at complexes I and III during the ECT. This is formed when an oxygen molecule gains an electron. The superoxide anion is then converted to hydrogen peroxide by superoxide dismutase (SOD); this is an important ROS producing enzyme. 

 

The H2O2 molecule can then become a massively damaging hydroxyl radical; this is highly reactive and causes oxidative damage to everything it touches.

ATP is made from ADP in the mitochondria by ATP synthase; this charges the battery of the cell. ATP is the main form of energy and is able to discharge the energy whenever needed by other cells and cell processes.

2ADT molecules can also be converted to an AMP and and ATP molecule by adenylate kinase; these levels of AMP are monitored by AMPK. If AMPK senses too much AMP, then the cell is under-energized. Likewise, too little AMP means the cell is making too much energy.

Low energy states prompt AMPK to initiate protective functions and longevity functions of the cell.

 

The Importance Of Supporting Healthy Mitochondria:

The brain and nervous system require a massive amount of energy to function, and this energy is provided by mitochondria.

Dysfunctional mitochondria basically can’t adapt to a changing environment. Normally, these organelles inside our cells are able to change according to demand. The demand changes according to the stress applied and environment.

Read More: Why You Should Protect Your Mitochondria – And How To Do It

Neurons are generally very long-lived cells; they do not turn over very fast. This means that neurons accumulate damage over time. 

Mitochondrial failure causes too little energy to be produced and not enough repair and detoxification ability for the brain. 

This ultimately results in neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration.

The mitochondria play a critical role in nerve and neuron function. Cells in the PNS (peripheral nervous system) and CNS rely on mitochondrial integrity. Aberrant mitochondrial quality control plays a large role in degeneration of the nervous system. 

Human cells have developed systems for mitochondrial quality control to protect cells from the overproduction or under-neutralization of reactive oxygen species.

Mitochondrial quality control includes:

  • Proteostasis
  • Biogenesis
  • Dynamics
  • Mitophagy
  • Autophagy

Mitochondrial Dysfunction And Inflammation:

A key cause of inflammatory pathways is failure of mitochondrial biogenesis, or biogenetic failure. In these situations there is an increase in calcium levels in the cytoplasm, there is oxidative stress (from ROS) and there is a decrease in normal mitochondrial DNA.  

Mitochondria undergo fusion and fission on a continual basis.  Fusion allows for more energy production.  Fission allows for the repair or removal of damaged mitochondrial DNA and organelles.  A failure of either will lead to an accumulation of inflammation and ROS within the brain which then damages neurons.   

Mitochondrial fission regulates the release of pro-inflammatory mediators.  It does so through nuclear factor kappa light chain enhancer of activated B cells (NF-kB) and MAPK (mitogen activated protein kinase) signaling.  Chronic activation of microglial (CNS support cells) can contribute to neuronal defection.  

One theory is that the accumulation of mitochondrial ROS activates the NLRP3 inflammasome-dependent pathway that elicits chronic inflammation. The NLRP3 inflammasome complex triggers the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and induces mitochondrial fragmentation. This impairs energy production and disrupts the CNS cell balance.

While the NLRP3 inflammasome complex is crucial for defense against pathogens, it is also the source of many NCDs (AD, gout, autoinflammatory disease, DM, atherosclerosis). Precise control of the NLRP3 inflammasome pathway is mandatory for the health of the cell.

How To Improve Mitochondrial Health

There are ways to improve the function and quality of mitochondria. Two well-known and studies methods are calorie restriction and exercise. Both methods employ a negative balance in terms of nutrient input and energy output needs. By producing a negative balance, the mitochondria are challenged. A challenged mitochondria will improve its function and abilities. 

The challenged mitochondria is better at biogenesis, energy production and other tasks. The unchallenged mitochondria fragments and fails; this is the heart of the NCD problem.

There is a profound effect on mitochondria by exercise. Sustained strenuous physical exercise can double the mitochondrial contents and activity. It will also increase the coupling of mitochondria and improve efficiency and function. 

One of the ways that enhance function of mitochondria during calorie restriction or exercise is the AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase) path. AMPK is an energy sensor. This molecule is deacetylated during fasting or exercise by SIRT-1. Deacetylation of AMPK increases its activity. 

AMPK functions to sense energy imbalances in the cell and then to initiate cell protection. When the energy supply is low, the cell and organism will respond by slowing down aging and increasing protection from many age-related problems.

Providing antioxidants also improves mitochondrial function by allowing for excessive levels of ROS to be removed from the organelles and cells. Additionally, anti-inflammatory molecules also improve function by protecting the cell membranes and changing the environment of chronic inflammation to a more healthy one.

Less inflammation means less reactive oxygen species and less oxidative stress.

There must be harmony in the generation of mitochondrial components from the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. This is achieved by the PPAR-gamma, SIRT1 and AMPK signalling pathway. There must be a balance between mitochondrial fusion and fission.

Fusion is the interconnection and enlargement of mitochondria to produce more energy. Fission is the repair/replace cycle for damaged mitochondria. For example, an abnormal accumulation of autophagy vacuoles from fission is a prominent feature of neurons in AD.

Defective oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria leads to excessive amounts of ROS and therefore elevation of oxidative stress. This causes more mitochondrial damage and a negative feedback loop happens. The role of antioxidants and anti-inflammatories is to stop this loop and to remove the unneeded ROS.

Many of our products are designed to help reduce inflammation. In particular, our Nervous System Multi is designed to improve neural health by optimizing mitochondrial function.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Dr. Meredith Warner is the creator of Well Theory and The Healing Sole. She is a board-certified Orthopedic Surgeon and Air Force Veteran.

She is on a mission to disrupt traditional medicine practices and promote betterment physically, spiritually and mentally to many more people. She advocates for wellness and functional health over big pharma so more people can age vibrantly with more function and less pain.

At Well Theory, Our surgeon-designed products are FDA Registered and formulated to help people:

  • Manage the symptoms of musculoskeletal pain
  • Recover vibrantly from orthopedic related surgeries
  • Fill the gaps in our daily diets
  • Manage pain associated with inflammation

Surgeon Formulated
For Your Peace of Mind

Natural Ingredients + Cutting-Edge Medical Breakthroughs.

100% NATURAL PAIN RELIEF FOR PEOPLE WORLDWIDE

Why Dr. Warner Recommends Our Nervous System Multi For Full-Body Inflammation Support

Why Dr. Warner Recommends Our Nervous System Multi For Neuro-Inflammation Support

Why You need to protect your brain

Bind Heavy Metals, Suppress Brain Inflammation, & Protect Brain Mitochondria

Hi, I’m Dr. Meredith Warner.

As an orthopedic surgeon, I have seen firsthand the damage that prolonged inflammation can inflict.

Inflammation is actually a normal part of your body’s defenses. Inflammation is triggered by your immune system as part of a protective measure when tissues are injured by trauma, bacteria, toxins, heat, and more. The cells that are damaged release chemicals like histamine and prostaglandins – causing blood vessels to leak fluid into the damaged and surrounding tissues, causing swelling.

This swelling protects the area from future damage and is part of your body’s natural healing process. White blood cells of the first-line defense (innate immunity) attack the pathogens (viruses, bacteria, toxins) or damaged cells (injury, cancer). This attack is effective in destroying the invaders, but there are toxic byproducts created that produce the damaging effects of inflammation within the area.

So, this initial inflammation is good and necessary to provide immunity and protection from bad things. However, when inflammation goes unchecked, it can lead to troubling complications. Chronic, ongoing low-grade inflammation is the worst as the damage might go on for years and years and produce serious problems late.

This study hypothesized that “…chronic disease development and progression are linked to uncontrolled or dysfunctional inflammation to injuries regardless of their nature, physical, environmental, or psychological.”

Many “lifestyle” diseases, such as diabetes, heart disease, forms of arthritis, neurodegenerative disorders and more are linked to an over-active or chronically active inflammatory response.

With our modern lifestyles, we encounter stress, toxins like pollution and heavy metals, and other factors that can lead to prolonged inflammation. This is why it’s essential to actively make anti-inflammatory habits and supplements a permanent part of your wellness routines. 

If you don’t give your body the anti-inflammatory weapons it needs to support its proper balance of good and bad inflammation, then chronic non-communicable diseases happen.

Here’s why my new Nervous System Multi is an excellent option for powerful + natural inflammation relief.

The Science Behind The Nervous System Multi

I designed this multi to combat nerve-based sources of pain and neuroinflammation specifically. There aren’t many natural options that exist for those suffering from conditions like neuropathy, and the pharmaceutical options that are commonly prescribed often have damaging side effects.

The most common cause of neuropathy? Prolonged inflammation, most commonly resulting from diabetes, that results in damaged and inflamed nerve endings.

Because your nervous system extends to every part of your body, I picked ingredients that provide widespread anti-inflammatory action, cellular support, and relief from damaging oxidative stress.

This multi uses clinically high doses of natural anti-inflammatories and nutraceuticals to support your entire nervous system. More importantly, there are elements that support the health and function of the mitochondrial in the neurons and neural support cells.

This multi protects nerve endings from oxidative damage, helps remove toxic metals in the body, and boosts mitochondrial (cells) function in the brain for better energy – so your entire nervous system can function at peak capacity.

What's In The Multi?

This multi includes natural ingredients: 

  • Chlorella (Super Algea)
  • Resveratrol
  • Luteolin
  • N-Acetyl L-Cysteine (NAC)
  • Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA)
  • Omega-3 fatty acids with a higher DHA:EPA ratio.

These ingredients target factors that lead to inflammation and oxidative stress within your body’s nervous system.

For example, PEA is naturally produced in your body to relieve inflammation. It’s part of your body’s natural response to protect itself from cellular damage, and when taken as a supplement gives you natural relief and protection without heavy medicinal fog.

PEA has been used successfully for decades to treat neuropathic pain and has no known clinically relevant side-effects.

This multi contains our highest dose of PEA yet (600mg) to provide powerful, but natural anti-inflammatory support – without harsh side effects. 

And that’s just one ingredient in this multivitamin.

Even if you aren’t suffering from nerve pain, this multi is an excellent way to reduce inflammation throughout your body. 

Because we are exposed to heavy metals, stress, incomplete diets, and other inflammatory factors on a daily basis – it’s safe to assume that you’re experiencing some amount of inflammation, even if you can’t see it.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Dr. Meredith Warner is the creator of Well Theory and The Healing Sole. She is a board-certified Orthopedic Surgeon and Air Force Veteran.

She is on a mission to disrupt traditional medicine practices and promote betterment physically, spiritually and mentally to many more people. She advocates for wellness and functional health over big pharma so more people can age vibrantly with more function and less pain.

At Well Theory, Our surgeon-designed products are FDA Registered and formulated to help people:

  • Manage the symptoms of musculoskeletal pain
  • Recover vibrantly from orthopedic related surgeries
  • Fill the gaps in our daily diets
  • Manage pain associated with inflammation

Surgeon Formulated
For Your Peace of Mind

Natural Ingredients + Cutting-Edge Medical Breakthroughs.

100% NATURAL PAIN RELIEF FOR PEOPLE WORLDWIDE

How Vitamin D Can Help Reduce Cancer Risk

How Vitamin D Can Help Reduce Cancer Risk

Vitamin D may soon be recommended for those with a higher risk of deadly cancers to help reduce the risk of developing advanced cancers. 

A study done by JAMA Network Open put this to the test.

The Study

and the results

A group of 25,000 men and women were included in the study to determine if taking 2,000 IU (international units) of Vitamin D daily could affect developing advanced – metastasized or fatal – cancers. The participants took their Vitamin D or placebo for an average of 5.3 years.

Those that took Vitamin D were 20% less likely to develop advanced cancer than those in the placebo group.

When the researchers took a closer look at the study’s data, they found that there was also a correlation with the participants’ weight. Those that were overweight or obese did not experience a benefit of cancer risk reduction when taking Vitamin D.

Vitamin D was not found to completely prevent cancer. It did; however, prove that it has the potential to reduce the risk of metastatic cancer and dying from cancer.

“Past research has provided clues as to why this might be the case, says Dr. Manson. Animal studies have found that vitamin D seems to change the way tumors behave, affecting the biology of their cells and making them less aggressive or likely to spread. Past research has also linked higher vitamin D levels at the time of a cancer diagnosis to longer survival, according to the study authors.”

The Conclusion

It is hypothesized that it is possible Vitamin D may not be effectively utilized by the body when one is overweight or obese. It is thought to be similar to insulin resistance in overweight individuals.

This isn’t a conclusive study, it still needs to be researched further, but the results are promising. It is recommended to at least take the minimum recommendation of 600-800 IU of Vitamin D each day. 

Look for foods high in Vitamin D and supplement when necessary. Nutrition labels will list the Vitamin D content of your foods.

Try Our Essential Multivitamin

Our Essential Multivitamin with PEA, Vitamin C, Vitamin D, and more is formulated as a powerhouse multivitamin for improved nutrition, pain reduction, and anti-inflammatory support contains 3000 IU of Vitamin D3.

Want to make this your go-to multivitamin? Try it out today!

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Dr. Meredith Warner is the creator of Well Theory and The Healing Sole. She is a board-certified Orthopedic Surgeon and Air Force Veteran.

She is on a mission to disrupt traditional medicine practices and promote betterment physically, spiritually and mentally to many more people. She advocates for wellness and functional health over big pharma so more people can age vibrantly with more function and less pain.

At Well Theory, Our surgeon-designed products are FDA Registered and formulated to help people:

  • Manage the symptoms of musculoskeletal pain
  • Recover vibrantly from orthopedic related surgeries
  • Fill the gaps in our daily diets
  • Manage pain associated with inflammation

Surgeon Formulated
For Your Peace of Mind

Natural Ingredients + Cutting-Edge Medical Breakthroughs.

100% NATURAL PAIN RELIEF FOR PEOPLE WORLDWIDE

Myofascial Pain and Breast Cancer

Myofascial Pain & Breast Cancer

Myofascial Pain & Breast Cancer

Up to 45% of those undergoing or post breast cancer treatment have pain. Usually, this pain is in the upper limb or mid-back region. It is generally thought that this pain is due to a myofascial trigger point, or areas of hyper-irritable spots in the skeletal muscle. These spots continually contract and/or become fibrotic. These spots are painful and cause muscle dysfunction around them and gradually increase pain in the area.

The myofascial matrix of the body is the area where muscle and fascia integrate. The myotendinous zone is where muscle and tendon integrate. There are weaker tissue connections and many nerve fibers at transition zones in the body. The myofascial area can become very painful. This is especially true if a faulty spot, or trigger point, is created.

Trigger Points

Trigger points not only are extremely tender and painful in and of themselves, but they also refer pain. As well, they can cause distant motor and autonomic or sensory effects. For example, a trigger point in the sternocleidomastoid muscle (front of the neck) can cause headaches that move to the crown.

Facebook
Twitter

Treatment

Common areas of trigger points and pain in breast cancer patients include the upper trapezius muscle, pectorals, serrates anterior, and some shoulder muscles. In addition to being painful, the neck, mid-back, shoulders, and scapular areas may become stiff.

Treatment is possible and generally safe. First-line treatment should be with a physical therapist. These professionals have a variety of techniques to treat muscle and fascial pain. A good physical therapist will create an individualized program to include stretching, massage, deep tissue work, strengthening, and passive relief modalities for the patient.

If physical therapy is not successful or fast enough, a physician can perform trigger point injections with a numbing medication and/or anti-inflammatory. These injections are directed into the painful trigger point itself.

Insurance covers both therapy and physician trigger point injections and treatments. In many states, there is a provision to allow direct access to a therapist for patients.

Of course, not all shoulder pain is related to breast cancer. Read this helpful blog to find out what kind of shoulder pain you may have, and access resources for naturally treating it at home!

At Well Theory, we advocate for patient-led, holistic alternatives to invasive procedures. Therapy is a great option for addressing discomfort caused by myofascial pain – and so are natural pain relieving products that harness the power of herbal remedies. Click here to view all of our surgeon-designed, safe, and holistic pain-relieving products!

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Dr. Meredith Warner is the creator of Well Theory and The Healing Sole. She is a board-certified Orthopedic Surgeon and Air Force Veteran.

She is on a mission to disrupt traditional medicine practices and promote betterment physically, spiritually and mentally to many more people. She advocates for wellness and functional health over big pharma so more people can age vibrantly with more function and less pain.

At Well Theory, Our surgeon-designed products are FDA Registered and formulated to help people:

  • Manage the symptoms of musculoskeletal pain
  • Recover vibrantly from orthopedic related surgeries
  • Fill the gaps in our daily diets
  • Manage pain associated with inflammation

Surgeon Formulated
For Your Peace of Mind

Natural Ingredients + Cutting-Edge Medical Breakthroughs.

100% NATURAL PAIN RELIEF FOR PEOPLE WORLDWIDE